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X-bar and sigma

What is it?

An X-bar and s (sigma) chart is a special purpose variation of the X-bar and R chart. Used with processes that have a subgroup size of 11 or more, X-bar and s charts show if the system is stable and predictable. They are also used to monitor the effects of process improvement theories. Instead of using subgroup range to chart variability, these charts use subgroup standard deviation. Because standard deviation uses each individual reading to calculate variability, it provides a more effective measure of the process spread. X-bar and sigma charts To create an X-bar and sigma chart using software, download a copy of SQCpack.

What does it look like?

The X-bar chart, on top, shows the mean or average of each subgroup. It is used to analyze central location. The sigma chart, on the bottom, shows how the data is spread and used to study system variability.