A free online reference for statistical process control, process capability analysis, measurement systems analysis, control chart interpretation, and other quality metrics.
Variation is inherent to any system, and the data collection process is no exception. However, excessive variation in the data collection process will appear as variation on the control chart and can have a negative effect on process analysis. In addition to using operational definitions to ensure measurement consistency, you should periodically perform repeatability and reproducibility tests and recalibrate gages.
Gage R&R refers to testing the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement system. Repeatability is the variation found in a series of measurements that have been taken by one person using one gage to measure one characteristic of an item. Reproducibility is the variation in a series of measurements that have been taken by different people using the same gage to measure one characteristic of an item.
Gage R&R studies let you address two major categories of variation in measuring systems: gage variability and operator variability. Gage variability refers to factors that affect the gage’s accuracy, such as its sensitivity to temperature, magnetic and electrical fields and, if it is mounted, how tight or loose the mount is. Operator variability refers to variation caused by differences among people. It can be caused by different interpretations of a vague operational definition, as well as differences in training, attitude, and fatigue level.
Performing gage R&R studies can be made easier by using software such as GAGEpack.